Anatomy of the foot and biomechanics

Anatomy of the foot and biomechanics

This allows our foot to contact the ground and is there for impact absorption


Comprises of a set of bones that are structured in an arch formation to provide support


Allows one to push off the ground later on in the stepping motion

  • All the structures in the foot have to function in a co-ordinated manner and with split second timing
  • Abnormal foot function can disrupt the sequence and increase the likely hood of injury
  • Sports injuries are commonly linked to our bio-mechanics (how muscular and gravitational forces are distributed through the skeleton
  • Our feet are designed for stability and shock absorption and responsible for distributing the impact of every step through the musculoskeletal system
  • Long term and complicated problems of the feet may need carefully designed inserts (orthotics) to support specific areas of the foot
  • If your foot rolls in too much towards the inside, then this is called excessive pronation which may lead to arch pain and medial knee pain
  • If your foot rolls too much to the outside this is called supination and this predisposes you to ankle sprains and stress fractures.

What is An Orthotic?

Anatomy of the foot and biomechanics

These are specially designed devices that are worn inside the shoe to control abnormal foot function or to off load high pressure areas off the foot. This should improve any foot pain experienced. The orthotics prescribed by a podiatrist are custom made for your feet. A foot impression first needs to be taken before the custom made orthotics can be produced in the laboratory. The orthotics may need "a wearing in" period for your body to adjust to the insert.


Choosing the correct footwear

Anatomy of the foot and biomechanics
Avoid foot problems by following these guide lines:
  • Visit the shoe store at the end of the day when your feet are the largest.
  • Don't just go by size have your feet measured./li>
  • Wear the respective socks that you would normally wear when working out or working.
  • There should be at least one thumbs space from the longest toe to the end of the toe box.
  • If you have bunions or hammertoes make sure that you find a shoe with a wide shoe box, you should be able to fully extend your toes when you are standing.
  • Running shoes should have shock absorption and cushioning for the foot.
  • Running shoes should also have good heal control, these features may help to prevent injuries like shin splints, tendonitis, heel pain and stress fractures.
  • Before purchasing new running shoes it is advised that you should have your walking / running examined by a podiatrist to ensure the correct type of running shoe is chosen or whether a corrective insert is needed.